Thinner

1104

Thinner is a product that contains a combination of volatile organic solvents. It is a volatile liquid with a pungent odor and is used to dissolve and dilute paints and glazes in order to reduce the viscosity and make the paints appropriate and easy to use.

According to the standards in some countries, thinner must contain four types of solvents, i.e. ketone, alcohol, ethers and hydrocarbons. Different chemical substances are compounded at different ratios.
1. Ketone 18%
2. Alcohol 8%
3. Ester 3%
4. Hydrocarbon 71% : Xylene, Toluene, etc.

Thinner

Picture from : http://www.productosjuliao.com.co

Hydrocarbon Composition
– Toluene
– Methyl Ethyl Ketone
– Acetone
– Ethyl Acetate
– Isobutyl Alcohol
– Isopropanol Alcohol
– Methanol
– Normal Butyl Acetate
– Ethylglycol Acetate
– Isopropyl Acetone
– Xylene

Toluene
• Chemical formula is C7H8.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a sweet odor of aromatic substance. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, benzene and ether. It is a hydrocarbon compound with a specific gravity of 0.873 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include the production of thinners, plastics, printing inks, perfume and explosives and a component of gasoline to increase octane content as well as of jet fuel.
• Physical harms are caused by that it is a highly flammable liquid and its vapors are harmful to the digestive system. This substance negatively affects liver, kidneys, bladder and brain and the human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Methyl Ethyl Ketone
• Chemical formula is C4HSO.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a unique fragrance. It is slightly soluble in water and well soluble in alcohol, benzene and various types of oil. It is a ketone compound with a specific gravity of 0.793 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose lacquers, paints, thinners, rubber adhesives and artificial leathers and a component of paint strippers.
• Physical harms are caused by that it is a highly flammable liquid and its vapors are seriously harmful to the central nervous system, lungs, chest, respiratory system, liver, gastrointestinal system and provides a narcotic effect. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Acetone
• Chemical formula is C3H6O.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a unique fragrance. It is soluble in water, hydrocarbon, ether and alcohol. It is a ketone compound with a specific gravity of 0.807 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose lacquers, paints, thinners, rubber adhesives, artificial leathers, safety glasses and cosmetics, a component of paint strippers, an extractor for vegetable oil and lubricant, a cleaning solution in the electronic industry, and pharmaceutical applications.
• Physical harms are caused by that it is a highly flammable liquid. If it is excessively inhaled, there are symptoms, including dizziness and unconsciousness. If it is ingested, the digestive system will be damaged together with intoxication and unconsciousness. A prolonged or repeated exposure by skin will cause severe irritation or may cause inflammation of the skin. This substance can damage the lungs, chest, kidneys, ureter and bladder. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 1000 ppm.

Ethyl Acetate
• Chemical formula is C4H8O2.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a fragrance. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, glycerin and hydrocarbon. It is an ester compound with a specific gravity of 0.903 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose lacquers and rubbers and applications in various industries, such as production of paints, adhesives, plastics and leather products, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications, synthesis of organic substances, and production of artificial silks.
• This substance can destroy the eyes, skin and respiratory system. Highly concentrated vapors can cause headache, dizziness and unconsciousness. Skin contact can cause inflammation and severely destroy the lipid layer of the skin. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 400 ppm.

Isobutyl Alcohol
• Chemical formula is C4H10O.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a slightly pungent odor. It is well soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether and hydrocarbon and slightly soluble in water. It is an alcohol compound with a specific gravity of 0.804 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for production of shellacs, manilas and lacquers to reduce the films when exposing to the moisture, a component of cleaning solution and fluid in a hydraulic system, and production of plastic additives and fragrances.
• Inhalation can cause irritation of the nose, throat and respiratory system. The inhalation of large quantities can cause coughing and breathing problems as well as result in the central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and unconsciousness. Ingestion of large quantities can cause more severe symptoms and death and damage liver and kidneys. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Isopropanol Alcohol
• Chemical formula is C3H8O.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with an ethyl alcohol-like odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol and ether. It is an alcohol compound with a specific gravity of 0.787 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose shellacs, manilas and resins, applications in various industries, such as concentrated perfumes, dyes, printing inks, washing chemicals and cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications.
• Inhalation is not very dangerous but it can irritate the respiratory system. The symptoms appearing later include headache, nausea and vomiting when the exposure increases. Receiving this substance in large quantities may cause unconsciousness or death. Prolonged exposure can result in the dry and cracked skin. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 400 ppm.

Methanol
• Chemical formula is CH4O.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with an ethyl alcohol-like odor. It is soluble in water, alcohol, ketone and hydrocarbon. It is an alcohol compound with a specific gravity of 0.793 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose manilas and resins, applications in various industries, such as pharmacy, dyes, printing inks and thinners. In addition, it is used to degrease the metal plates before plating and to mix with jet fuel to prevent explosions.
• Inhalation can cause irritation to eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract and result in the central nervous system depression, headache, dizziness and drowsiness. Exposure of large amounts will cause potential danger to the death because of respiratory failure. Skin contact will cause the loss of the skin’s fatty layer, dryness, crack and erythema. Swallowing or ingestion can cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 200 ppm.

Normal Butyl Acetate
• Chemical formula is C6H12O2.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a fruit-like fragrance. It is soluble in alcohol, ether and hydrocarbon. It is a ketone compound with a specific gravity of 0.883 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include the production of pains, thinners, lacquers, leather products, perfumes and cosmetics, the extraction of condiments, and a solvent for nitrocellulose, rubbers, manilas and plastics.
• Inhalation can cause irritation to the respiratory system, coughing, shortness of breath and intoxication. Skin contact will decrease the skin’s fat that causes the skin irritation and discoloration. Getting into the eyes can cause severe irritation and burn the corneal. This substance destroys the blood, lungs, liver and check and harms a fetus. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Ethylglycol Acetate
• Chemical formula is C6H12O3.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with an ester-like odor. It is well soluble in alcohol, ether and hydrocarbon and slightly soluble in water. It is a ketone compound with a specific gravity of 0.975 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose in the production of paints, thinners, leather products, printing inks and textiles, a component of paint strippers, and a component of lacquers used to remove the brushing marks.
• Inhalation of large quantities can cause irritation to the respiratory system. Prolonged skin contact can cause skin inflammation. This substance can be absorbed through the skin and harm the liver, kidneys, blood, gastrointestinal system and bladder as well as destroy the central nervous system. This substance is harmful to an unborn baby. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Isopropyl Acetone
• Chemical formula is C6H12O.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a ketone odor. It is well soluble in various kinds of oil and all types of organic solvents and slightly soluble in water. It is a ketone compound with a specific gravity of 0.803 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for nitrocellulose in the production of paints, thinners, artificial leathers, printing inks and rubber adhesives and the separation of wax and oil from petroleum.
• Inhalation of large quantities may cause irritation to the respiratory system. Symptoms that indicate when exposure level increases include headache, nausea and vomiting. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Xylene
• Chemical formula is C8H10.
• General physical appearance is a clear, colorless and volatile liquid with a unique odor. It is soluble in alcohol and ether and insoluble in water. It is a hydrocarbon compound with a specific gravity of 0.875 (measured at 25 ºC).
• Industrial benefits include a solvent for fat and oil, the grease in the production of paints, lacquers, rubber adhesives, synthetic fibers and jet fuel, and an intermediate in the synthesis of vitamins in pharmacy applications.
• Skin contact can cause skin irritation, burn and dermatitis. Swallow or ingestion harms the body and causes excessive saliva and sweating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia. It can also destroy the nervous system, blood, eyes, ears, liver and kidneys and harm the fetus. The human body can tolerate this vapor at 100 ppm.

Benefits and applications
Thinner is a final product that contains different substances and is often used both in industrial and household applications.
• For industrial applications, it is widely used in the industry of paints, printing houses, production of plastics and power cords, including other industries that require the use of other chemical solvents in the production process, such as melting and dilution of paints or printing inks.
• For household applications, it is widely used in the painting, wooden and car repairing works by mixing it with coatings, paints or lacquers by dividing the paints or what to be mixed into a container, pouring the thinner, and stirring them well based on an appropriate ratio.

Hazard statements
1. Thinner is flammable and toxic. It must never be ingested or inhaled. It should be used in a well-ventilated area.
2. Thinner’s vapors can spread over long distances, ignite and explode. It should not be used in a confined place where there is a light switch, heater and electrical appliances without explosion prevention system or with flames and sparks.

Hydrocarbon compounds used include toluene, benzene and xylene. These substances come with sedative and hallucinogenic effects. Especially, if inhaled, toluene can provide a fanciful and fun feeling. If it is much inhaled, it can cause intoxication, unclear speech, hallucination, and inability to control oneself.

Moreover, if it is much inhaled for a long time, it can result respiratory irritation, destruction of mucous membranes in the respiratory system, damage of capillaries, and inflammation and eventually failure of respiratory system.

In addition, hydrocarbon compounds, including other ketone and ether compounds, partly cause a cancer.

Safety statements
1. Thinner can harm the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, skin and eye, which will result in their irritation and inflammation. During using this substance, a mask, gloves, shoes and working clothes should be worn.
2. In case of eye or skin contact, it should be washed with clean water. If there are serious symptoms, medical attention should be immediately sought.
3. In case of inhalation or in any place with a high concentration of thinner vapors, the patient should be immediately brought out of such area and given a first aid.
4. If swallowed, vomiting must never be induced and medical attention should be immediately sought.
5. Thinner containers should be tightly closed when not in use.
6. Thinner should not be transferred into an unlabelled container.
7. It should be stored in a secured place and kept out of reach of children.
8. The storage temperature should be between 0 to 40 degrees Celsius and it must not be stored near heat sources, direct sunlight and sparks.