Pinene is one composition of the essential oil, which has the chemical formula C10H16 and a monoterpene in a bicyclic form that found in nature with 2 isomers are α-pinene and β-pinene, The synthetic of both used the same type substance is geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and the cyclisation reaction of linaloyl pyrophosphate lost of carbon atoms and recharged carbon atoms up to 6 electrons and 3 bonds and then yielded α-pinene and β-pinene.

The α-pinene and β-pinene are clearly oil and freely soluble in alcohol, but insoluble in water, there are found in plants such as rosemary, parsley, basil and rose, etc. In addition, they are an important odoriferous compound extracted mandarin and also found in many plant species, especially plants of citrus family.


Concentration of lime oil extracted from Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (BT lime) found monoterpene approximately 77.41% that consisted of limonene 41.40%, β-pinene 18.54%, γ-terpinene 7.13%, sabinene 4.52. %, α-pinene 2.87% and mycrene 1.21%. Concentration of β-pinene and lime oil extracted from Citrus limonia Osbeck (DT lime) found approximately 98.51% that found mainly concentration of monoterpene 87.38%, which is higher than Persa lime (77.77%) and BT lime (77.41%). The ratio of β-pinene and γ-terpinene in DT lime with BT lime found that DT lime has a ratio of β-pinene and γ-terpinene 1:2.6 . But, the ratio of β-pinene and γ-terpinene in BT lime is 2.7: 1 (Masayoshi, 2010)(1).

Pinene synthase enzyme (pns) (EC is an enzyme catalysis of GPP substrate yielded α-Pinene and β-pinene. In coniferous family (Gymnospermae) such as Abies grandis, pinene synthase enzyme will converting GPP substrate yielded α-pinene 40% and β-. Pinene 60%.

Benefits of Pinene
– Pinene from aromatic plants used as a component of perfume.
– Using a component of cosmetics such as moisturizer, shampoo, hair conditioner.
– Apply a massage for treat of lameness, swelling and inflammation.
– Apply a massage for treat of headache.
– Apply for inhalation to relax and reduce drowsiness.
– Apply a massage on abdominal for treat of period cramps.
– Put in a bedroom, living room or workplace for aroma.
– Apply for treat a musty odor and stinky smells.
– Apply for hair care with a massage hair directly or mixed conditioner.
– Apply for cleaning of body or water mixing for bathing.

Medical Properties of Pinene
• Antiinflammatory
• Antibacterials and Antivirials
• Antioxidation
• Anticancer

Toxicity of Pinene
• Toxicity on animal
– Toxicity of ingestion (rats) : LD50 = 3,700 mg/kg.
– Toxicity of inhalation : LCL0 = 625 mg/kg (rats), LCL0 = 364 μg/m3 (mouse), LCL0 = 572 μg/m3 (guinea pig).

• Toxicity on ecosystem
Pinene is a very highly toxicity on aquatic animal and aquatic plant, especially toxicity on algae and fish at LD50 < 1 mg/l .

• Toxicity on human
– Toxicity from contact: Moderate toxicity of high concentration which irritated on eyes and skin.
– Toxicity of ingestion : Eating high concentration induced headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.

Allergy Skin Testing
An allergy skin test can be practiced by dropping of pinene oil on cotton or dipping of cotton in pinene oil and then smearing on wrist or crook of the arm and leave for about 1-2 hours, then noticed. If you have an allergy, skin induced itching or a rash. So, you should avoid using pinene oil. If allergy skin test caused burning or severe itching, then using sweet almond oil or coconut oil smear on illness area.

Storage of Pinene
Pinene should be kept in refrigerator and away from heat sources or spark sources.