Nicotine gum (or nicotine chewing gum) contains nicotine replacement to chew for abstinence from smoking, but its users still get the nicotine with fewer amount compared to smoking and also allows users to not get other toxins and to change their behavior to quit smoking easily.
The nicotine in cigarettes is a major source of nicotine that makes people addicted to it. While smoking, the nicotine enters the lungs, bloodstream and finally brain within 7-10 seconds, and the amount of nicotine in the bloodstream will be high within five minutes. One cigarette contains approximately 1-2 mg of nicotine.
The use of medications to quit smoking that has been proven to be useful and highly effective in smoking cessation is to provide Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), which helps prevent the sudden lack of nicotine.
There are two forms of medicines used for smoking cessation, i.e. nicotine gum and nicotine patch. They are different in their usage patterns and the amount of nicotine contained so that those who want to quit smoking can select their appropriate dose of medication.
Most available nicotine gums contain two doses of nicotine, namely, 2 and 4 mg, which is appropriate for those who have smoked with different numbers of cigarettes per day. These gums use nicotine polacrilex, which is nicotine resin complex, as their mixture. While chewing, the nicotine in these gums will become a solution, and if swallowed, it is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream.
Ingredients of Nicotine gum /Nicotine chewing gum
– Nicotine Polacrilex
– Acesulfame Potassium
– Calcium Carbonate
– Carnauba Wax
– Gum Base
– Sodium Bicarbonate
– Sodium Carbonate
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The dose of Nicotine gum/Nicotine chewing gum
– Those smoking 1 – 24 cigarettes per day use no more than 30 gums with 2mg of nicotine per day
– Those smoking more than 25 cigarettes per day use no more than 15 gums with 4mg of nicotine per day.
Using of Nicotine gum/Nicotine chewing gum
Selection of a nicotine gum must consider the smoking amount the users regularly have in order to get the amount of nicotine as close as those they have gotten. Also, the users should not chew it more than the amount mentioned above. Recommended method of use is as follows:
– Do not chew it like chewing a general gum because the nicotine will come out too much.
– Chew it slowly 3-4 times until nicotine’s bitter and astringent tastes come out. Then, keep it in the cheek instead and wait until such tastes disappear before re-chewing it again in the same nature along with keeping it in the cheek intermittently.
– Chew it by another side of teeth especially there is a burning feeling in the cheek or molar fatigue.
– One gum is chewed for more than 30 minutes.
Prohibitions of Nicotine gum/Nicotine chewing gum
1. It must not be chewed together with smoking or with other nicotine-contained products because the potential toxic effects of nicotine can be higher.
2. It must not be used in people who are allergic to compounds in gum.
3. It must not be used in pregnant or breastfeeding women.
4. It must not be used in patients with cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and vascular disease.
5. During two weeks, it must not be used in patients during recovery from heart muscle-related treatments.
Examples of Nicotine gum/Nicotine chewing gum are sold.
Benefits of Nicotine gum/Nicotine chewing gum
1. It can help reduce and suppress the symptoms of quitting smoking suddenly.
2. Users will also get the same nicotine, but its amount will be smaller and the users will not get other types of toxins from smoking.
3. Getting the nicotine by chewing instead of smoking will allow its users to change their behavior that is not accustomed to smoking as ever.
4. For those using nicotine gum but they are still smoking, it will allow these users to reduce the amount of smoking.
5. The use of chewing gum to smokers who smoke regularly will help make a better short-term memory.
1. Stress reduction
Chewing a gum can help more rejuvenate people with moderate stress than those who do not chew any gum at all because it partially stimulates the flow of blood and the function of nervous system in the brain.
2. Creation of alertness and vitality
Chewing a gum is associated with alertness and causes a positive emotion as well as makes a better concentration, heart rate, and higher level of cortisol, which confirms that chewing a gum causes alertness.
3. Prevention of tooth decay
Saliva secretion during chewing a gum can help maintain the moisture of the mouth and protect the tooth decay by reducing the acidity in the mouth because while we are eating carbohydrate, the pH in the mouth will be lower. Also, saliva can help clean up after the meal. When mixing saliva with chewing a sugar-free gum, the salivary gland will produce saliva to reduce the acidity of the food eaten. That means that we can reduce the teeth decay by reducing the tooth’s chance of exposure to acid. Moreover, after the meal, the pH of the plaque will be acidic for a while making the teeth weak and easy to decay. Some chewing gums containing Xylitol can help inhibit bacteria that causes tooth decay because Xylitol is named as a sugar that microorganism cannot digest it to produce the acidic condition in the mouth and is unlike general sugars, so it does not cause tooth decay.
4. Increase of oxygen to brain
Chewing a gum can affect mood and stress by adding more blood to the brain. It can reduce stress because oxygen and glucose are more delivered to the brain. In addition, the stress will increase glucose metabolism in the brain’s rostral medial prefrontal cortex. This is related to the reduction of the concentration of cortisol in saliva. It is possible that the increase of blood to the brain after chewing a gum may really increase glucose in such part and also lower the level of cortisol.
5. Memory improvement
Chewing a gum can help prevent memory loss because it will affect the increase of blood flow and the level of oxygen in the blood to various parts of the brain, especially in the Hippocampus, which functions relating to memory of different positions and directions. Naturally, this Hippocampus atrophies with age especially in the elderly people. However, if these seniors use their teeth to chew food regularly, it will help to slow down the onset of memory loss.
6. Control of body weight
Chewing a gum regularly will also affect the behavior of chewing food because the time of chewing food will be longer make eating food less as well as there is a more metabolism of body fat, which can control the body weight at the same time.
A study providing a chewing gum with 2 mg of nicotine to 43 people who smoke regularly found that more than 70% of all these smokers could quit smoking and only 23% continued to smoke one year after the study.
According to another study on the effects of nicotine gum on short-term memory done with 60 smokers and 60 non-smokers and the number of men and women was equal, the study found that nicotine could help improve their short-term memory and there was no difference between men and women.
A study providing a chewing gum for a period of three months to see the effects on the nicotine levels in the blood found that the average nicotine levels in the blood of 50 people while smoking, chewing a gum with 2 mg of nicotine, and chewing a gum with 4 mg of nicotine over a period of 12 weeks were 35, 9, and 23 ng / mL, respectively. Using 14 -24 gums with 4 mg of nicotine per day had no acute symptoms among participants, but there were some side effects that were not common and could be controlled. When following up those getting a nicotine gum continuously for 2-3 months, they used lower doses of nicotine.
Disadvantages and side effects
1. Users of nicotine gum will still get the same nicotine so they may sometimes turn to smoking again.
2. There may be some side effects of nicotine excessively and rapidly released in the oral cavity that can cause dizziness, hiccup, nausea, and vomiting, including irritation of the mouth lining. Some people may have symptoms like burning in their throat and stomach, especially those who suffer from gastritis. Irritation in the mouth can be solved by changing the area of keeping the gum within the cheek.
3. It will not be popular for those who do not like any chewing gum or its taste.
4. Chewing gum is not suitable for those who are wearing dentures because it can cause their dentures to remove or loose.
5. Chewing gum is not suitable for those who have braces because chewing can affect their teeth braces.