Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is an organic compound and a phenolic lactone compound. It is found throughout at high concentration of berry family such as strawberry, cranberry and other plants such as walnuts, grapes and pomegranate, etc.
The polyphenol of plants as known for health benefits. It was encapsulated with threonine of peptide microtubes and microtubes were precursor synthesized EA.
Ellagic acid (EA) is the highly stable substance, which contains four rings of the lipophillic part and part of the hydrophillic with four phenolic and two lactone groups.
Ellagic acid found in plants, which is a one component of tannin called ellagitannins. Ellagitannins are structural of the plant cell wall and cell membrane, which are glucose groups, when they have been hydrolyzed, then yielded ellagic acid.
Physical and Chemical Properties
• Trade name : Ellagic acid
• Chemical Name : 4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-hexahydroxydiphenic acid 2,6,2′,6′-dilactone
• Molecular formula : C14H6O8
• Molecular Weight : 302.2 g/mol
• Status : Powder
• Color : White, yellowish-white, or pale fawn-coloured crystals
• Water solubility : < 0.1 g /100 ml. At 21 °C
• Density : 1.677 g/cm3
• CAS Number : 476-66-4
Medicinal effects of ellagic acid
The medicinal properties of ellagic acid were found to be an effective for antioxidant, anticancer, antitoxic and treatment of diseases, etc. In addition, it has been shown to be a potent benefit for chemo preventive, antifibrotic, antiviral and antibacterial properties.
The pharmacological properties of ellagic acid, which is well known such as :
• Treatment of diabetes
For medicinal properties of ellagic acid, which one property popular is an anticancer. For the food safety, using of ellagic acid in food additive has been allowed. Especially, for an antioxidant functioning and received particular attention because it is biological substance with medicinal properties.
1. Antioxidant activity
Hassan and colleague studied extract of peels from Mangifera pajang fruits, which is a rich source of polyphenols of phenolic compounds such as ellagic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, and protocatechuic acid, etc. These phenolic compounds were shown to exhibit antioxidant properties. (Hassan et al., 2011)(5)
The study of the effects of EA for antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing activities that experiment measured activities of EA with treated V79-4 cells. It found that EA has been shown both antioxidant activity and antiapoptosis activity in HOS cells. (Han et al., 2006)(4)
The effects of EA on heart disease property in rats from the protective role of EA in biochemical parameters such as amount of iron in serum, uric acid, glycoprotein and electrolytes. The study found that EA has an effect to increasing on levels of iron, uric acid and glucose in serum, but EA has an effect to decreasing on levels of iron binding capacity, total protein and albumin/globulin ratio in serum, including heart glycogen. Moreover, higher concentration of hemoglobin may raise to oxygen delivery of generate free radicals in tissues, which can be harmful to the myocardium and other parts of the cardiovascular system. But EA has been shown antioxidant and can protected the myocardium from free radical damage. (Kannan et al., 2012)(8)
The effects of EA on heart disease in rats by studying electrocardiography that found EA treated with the oral pretreatment at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg improved blood pressure control and heart rate. Furthermore, it was safe and highly effective in cardio-protection and improved cardiac dysfunction. These findings are rational to understand the beneficial effects of EA on cardio-protection against myocardial injury, in which oxidative stress was known to contribute to the pathogenesis. (Kannan et al., 2011)(7)
The study of Yilmaz and Usta that found EA induced endothelium dependent, which has direct vasorelaxant effects on the rat aortic rings that indicated EA has a vasodilator effect. In the future, EA will have a potential natural product for treatment of clinical disorders such as hypertension and heart failure. (Yilmaz and Usta, 2012)(11)
2. Anti-inflammatory activity
The medicinal properties of EA in a dietary supplement are indicated to have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive with experimented in 54 male rats (6 groups) to be given the following compounds: vehicle, ketorolac, meloxicam, EA, EA plus ketorolac and EA plus meloxicam and paw of rats inflamed by injecting carrageenan. The result found that EA effects in reducing or eliminating inflammatory for up to 24 hours. The using of EA for reducing of inflammatory pain, it may use in forms of herbal or dietary supplement. (Gainok et al., 2011)(3)
The study of EA on anti-inflammatory properties with combination of anesthetic adjuvants after intraperitoneal injection and paw of rats inflamed by with 3% carrageenan that found EA may be effective antiinflammation and may interact with known COX inhibitors. (Corbett et al., 2010)(1)
3. Antihyperlipidaemic activity
The study of Ea property on reducing of lipid and membrane bound ATP ases in rats induced diabetic. The study measured activities such as :
– Na+/K+ ATP ases
– Mg2+ ATP ases
– Ca2+ ATPases in tissues
– Total cholesterol (TC)
– Triglycerides (TG)
– Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
– High density lipoproteins (HDL)
– Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
This study found that, the enzyme activities in tissues were significant decreased, while the levels of TC, TG, LDL and VLDL in serum were increased, but HDL was decreased. Thus, treatment with EA on diabetic in rats restored the enzyme activities in tissues and serum lipids in serum to near normally. (Kanchana et al., 2011)(6)
4. Antifibrotic activity
Alcohol drinking is a major cause of cirrhosis occur from matrix degradation of alcohol intoxication, which is related to metamorphosis of hepatic tissue inhibitors (MMPs and TIMPs). This metamorphosis indicated to chronic liver disease. The effects of EA on MMPs and TIMPs in alcohol drinking found that who drank alcohol with EA decreased of MMP-2 and -9 and TIMP-2. The results of this study suggest at 60 mg/kg body weight of EA for reducing of alcohol intoxication in liver. (Devipriya et al., 2007)(2)
5. Antibacterial activity
The study of EA from the root of Rubus ulmifolius for antibiotics that found extract 220D-F2 can be used to inhibit S. aureus without toxic effects on cells. So, EA is a natural extract for development as a botanical drug for antibiotics. (Quave et al., 2012)(10)
6. Anticarcinogenic and Chemopreventive activity
Bisen et al.(2012) studied effect of EA on antioxidant and anticancer activity in various cancer cell-lines showed that EA reduced growth of tumor cells through repression of multiple cell signaling pathways including cell multiplication pathway.
The study of EA on chemopreventive efficacy in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats. This experiment initiated subcutaneous injection of DMH 40 mg/kg body weight showed that raised expression of ODC and a genetic marker. In addition, lipid peroxidation levels increased and hydroperoxides levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione decreased, which observed in the cells of DMH-inebriated rats. These experiments indicated that supplementary foods of EA has been shown to be a potent benefit for anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive activity. (Kumar et al., 2012)(9)